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Revision History



Aug 07, 2004

Alexander Mihail

Started the document

Aug 22, 2004

Alexander Mihail

Integrated the figures

Sep 15, 2004

Georgeta Ionita

Technical translation from English to Romanian

Sep 16, 2004

Alexander Mihail

Screenshots with callout boxes.






Table of Contents

 TOC \o "1-3" \h \z 1      Important legal notices. PAGEREF _Toc83192063 \h 2

1.1       Copyrights. PAGEREF _Toc83192064 \h 2

1.2       Trademarks and patents. PAGEREF _Toc83192065 \h 2

1.3       Nondisclosure agreement PAGEREF _Toc83192066 \h 2

2      Objective of the Gaius system.. PAGEREF _Toc83192067 \h 3

3      Intended audience for Gaius. PAGEREF _Toc83192068 \h 3

4      The application frame of Gaius. PAGEREF _Toc83192069 \h 4

4.1       Gaius 5 Concept Browser PAGEREF _Toc83192070 \h 4

4.1.1        The toolbar of Gaius 5. PAGEREF _Toc83192071 \h 5

4.1.2        Browsing related concepts. PAGEREF _Toc83192072 \h 6

4.1.3        The status bar of Gaius 5. PAGEREF _Toc83192073 \h 7

4.2       Gaius 5 complete navigation system.. PAGEREF _Toc83192074 \h 7

4.3       The Master Scope View.. PAGEREF _Toc83192075 \h 8

5      Building dictionaries. PAGEREF _Toc83192076 \h 9

5.1       An overview of the dictionary design process. PAGEREF _Toc83192077 \h 9

5.2       Using the legal text compiler PAGEREF _Toc83192078 \h 10

6      Viewing/browsing a legal dictionary as a schematic. PAGEREF _Toc83192079 \h 10


Table of Figures

 TOC \h \z \c "Figure" Error! No table of figures entries found.



Important legal notices


This document contains sensitive material, which is and remains the intellectual property of Proxima Centauri Romania S.R.L. Duplication or publication of any part of this material without the express prior consent of Proxima is prohibited under the international copyright laws.


Trademarks and patents

ANNA K5 is a trademark of Proxima Centauri Pty Ltd.

GAIUS 5 is a trademark of Proxima Centauri Romania S.R.L.

The methods and the designs described in this document are pending patents in the US, Australia, and Romania.


Nondisclosure agreement

The reader will proceed with this document under an implicit non-disclosure agreement with Proxima Centauri.


Objective of the Gaius system

Gaius is essentially a browser and editor of dictionaries of generic concepts.


A concept is a generic term. Concepts can relate to one another to establish Dictionaries. A dictionary of terms or concepts needs a way to navigate. Once a concept is found it can be edited. The role of the Gaius Concept Editor is to provide navigation and editing functionality for concept dictionaries.


Gaius also provides a set of high-level tools to create dictionaries from text sources, to generate reports, and to compare dictionaries to create cross-references.


Gaius is best at designing and maintaining legal archives, as dictionaries of terms, laws, doctrine articles, and general comments.


We shall next focus on the applications of Gaius in the legal world.


Intended audience for Gaius

Core system developers

Dictionary developers:

Law firms


End users in the field.

As a design tool, Gaius is intended for use in a firm that provides legal advice to the public. Such a firm may choose to construct its own database of legislation, sell it to its private or corporate clients, and then inform them periodically of updates. In this scenario, Gaius is a database editor, archive manager, and update manager.


As a tool in the hands of the end-user, Gaius is a dictionary browser for a database that is only readable. As such, Gaius is the simplest, most integrated, and convenient way of finding legal text in pre-configured database of normative acts. It can also produce reports from user selections.


Gaius is also an evolving environment, in the hands of core programmers. They constantly develop program modules, such as dedicated viewer/editors, report generators, or sophisticated cross-referencing tools based on Artificial Intelligence.


Three types of system users are thus present in Gaius's world.:

  1. End users, such as:
    1. a Lawyer preparing a defense case.
    2. a Magistrate querying an extensive legal database of jurisprudence.
  2. Dictionary developers, such as:
    1. a Law firm maintaining a legal database for its clients
    2. a Law School professor working on a doctrine article around a given legal matter,
    3. a Law student gathering a repository of legal concepts for assignments or exams.
  3. Product developers, such as the programmer responding to a request from the other user categories to develop, say, a certain method of searching for concepts.

The application frame of Gaius

Like most applications of ANNA K5 operating system, Gaius is launched from a tray icon. A popup menu such as the one below lists the application's major components.


A component of Anna K5 is an independent program module, which complies to a certain development standard that allows interaction with other such modules. Gaius is constructed to interface with other programs such as the Scope Browser, the Information Viewer, and the Schematic Editor.


The tray popup menu presents all the modules registered in a given system installation on a particular computer.

Gaius 5 Concept Browser

The Concept Browser starts with an initial concept as set by the Editor's environment. In the illustration below the initial topic is "Inchisoarea"/"Jail", which is a dictionary term belonging to a hierarchy of concepts from the Romanian Code of Criminal Law. Navigation is possible thereafter by double clicking on the relative concepts in the Base Concepts Tree View and in the Derived Concepts Tree View, which are the two arborescences on the left and right of the Concept Editor form.


Any concept such as "Inchisoarea"/"Jail" is said to have inputs and outputs. The inputs of a concept are the set of links to other base concepts used in "explaining" the current concept. The outputs of a concept are the set of links to other concepts derived from the current concept.


The display method of Gaius's Concept Editor has the following rationale:

  1. Any concept has a name. The name and its aliases are edited in one simple edit control.
  2. Any concept has a description. The concept description is a document that contains text as well as multimedia embedded objects such as waves, pictures, tables, scanned documents, etc. The document area of a concept is a large view to comfortably fit the information. If the current concept "Inchisoarea" is an arborescence of other concepts, then concept description panel is configurable to build a documentation that includes the entire text of all sub-concepts. The level of detail is configurable from the browser's toolbar.
  3. The Base and Derived tree views show the connections of the central concept to the other concepts of the dictionary. They are required for navigation.
  4. The Base and Derived Concept Editors, are simpler versions of the center text editor that show one level of detail of the related concept.
  5. A global toolbar collects the non-obvious functionality of the overall Concept Browser.
  6. A status bar shows the runtime status of the browser.

Browser de legaturi la notiunile de baza

Bara de instrumente

Browser de legaturi la notiunile derivate

Editorul notiunii de baza selectate

Editorul notiunii curente incarcate

Editorul notiunii derivate selectate

Bara de stare

Editorul de nume si sinonime

Sublinierea interdependentelor

de notiuni

This screen organization allows for a maximum fill of the visual area with content pertaining to the current concept.

The toolbar of Gaius 5


1.                  Keep: prevents the Concept View from refocusing.

2.                  Okay: applies the changes made into the base, current and derived concept editors.

3.                  Depth level: sets the detail level for the current concept information.

4.                  Drop mode: configures the effect of drag and drop operations over the Name editor.

5.                  New: creates another concept, peer with the last one.

6.                  Delete: deletes the current concept and loads the next one if available. Otherwise it loads the parent.

7.                  Flags: on/off values to configure various aspects of the Concept Browser.

8.                  Font: sets the font of the current selection. Information fields with fonts are stored as documents. Fonts are lost upon the next compilation.

9.                  Search: searches a string within the given text.

10.              Generate: generates the information document based on the level of depth specified.

11.              Grammar: edits the grammar of headings used by the compiler and text generator

12.              Compile: compiles the text using the specified grammar, or, if the Headings flag is checked, using numbered leading labels up to the depth specified by the toolbar.

13.              Cross-reference: automatically builds the information cross-reference by analyzing the sub-concepts of the currently selected concept. This process matches node names and their aliases into the information text of any other node. If matches are found, exactly one relation is created between the two nodes. Use a right-mouse-click to delete all such relations in the scope.

14.              Insert object: embed multimedia documents into the concept description.


Browsing related concepts

The base and derived concept browser show the links that the current concept has with other concepts of the dictionary.


With a black icon we represent a link that the current concept has to another branch of the dictionary. Such a link is said to be "structured" because it contains all the other links that the current concept ort its sub-concepts has to the related branch. Elementary links with red icons cannot be expanded further.



Cables of cross-references and hierarchies of concepts are Gaius's fundamental mechanisms for managing dictionaries of a great level of complexity, such as is the case with a legal archive.


The user browses the base or the derived concept trees finding other documents that relate to the current concept. A preview of that link is shown in the Base or Derived Concept Editors. The entire Concept Browser looks much like a newspaper page, rather than a flat textbook page, which helps the user in holding more and non duplicate information on the screen.


Selecting a link in the base or derived concept browsers will highlight the occurrence of that concept within the main concept panel. The current concept name and its synonyms are also used to highlight the occurrence of the current concept in the side articles. The result is a set of visual indications that the user has as to why the cross-references exist and what they mean. In the screen shot above, the center concept was "Titlul III | Pedepsele"/"Punisments" of the Romanian Penal Code. The base concept of "Suspendarea conditionata a pedepsei" or "Parole" is selected in the tree and in the base concept editor below it. Likewise in the derived concept list we selected the article referring to "aplicarea legii penale mai favorabile". The name of the central concept were highlighted in the base/derived concept editors in blue and red respectively, and the selected base and derived concept names were highlighted in the central concept editor for ease of identification.


The status bar of Gaius 5

The status bar shows current status information relating to the editing of the current concept.

It has the following layout:

1.                  The number of lines in the information text

2.                  The current (column:row) position of the cursor into the text

3.                  The caracter offset from the beginning of the information text

4.                  Information relations created during a cross-reference process

5.                  The effort of comparing concepts during a cross-reference process

6.                  Controls showing a percent estimate to the completion of compilation, generation or cross-reference processes.

Gaius 5 complete navigation system

Scope Browser

Concept Browser

Info View

The navigation capabilities of a certain dictionary are intrinsic to the design of that dictionary. Consequently, there would be certain base concepts, which are considered terminals or axioms of that dictionary. Such concepts would not have any inputs. These are also the most general terms used throughout that dictionary to form more specific ones. Conversely, certain concepts in the dictionary may be final, in that no other concept is based on them. The set of symbols of these two kinds, one kind without inputs, and another without outputs, are the limits of that particular dictionary.


Cross referential closure within a given dictionary could lead to the formation of distinct, unrelated sets of words. Such clusters are the sub-languages of a dictionary. Navigating the words of a sub-language could be a closed circle, depending on the design of the particular concept dictionary. If such distinct language pools are present in a dictionary, then another tool, which is foreign to the scope of this Concept Editor is required to allow the user to do the jump.


Just such a tool is the Master Scope View of the ANNA K5 integration frame. The Master Scope View is briefly described below.


The Master Scope View

A Gaius 5 concept dictionary is a highly structured multi-dimensional entity. To navigate it one needs to descend down the scope axis of the dictionary using a Master Browser. The result is the loading of a concept into the Concept Browser.


The Master Browser provides the necessary features to work on dictionary branches.


  1. The open button: opens a structure and graft it under the currently selected tree node
  2. The store button:
  3. The Alias up/down control: sets the current alias across the entire system.


All objects in the ANNA K5 operating system have a name. An object is said to have aliases when its name is made from more than one simple string compounded using the | (pipe) character. The name of an object may be edited either in a scope tree or in the name editor of the concept viewer.


Aliases work just like simple names to identify the object in any search or display algorithm.


One may use aliases in a database of people for example, to associate a nickname with the proper name of each person. Looking-up a person by his/her nickname is just like searching by their proper name.


In a legal database, aliases or synonyms are are used to associate node names such as Legea, Partea, Titlul, Sectiunea, Capitolul, Articolul meaningful namnes such as: Codul Penal, Partea Generala, Pedepsele, Pedepsele Principale, and Regimul general al executarii pedepselor.


While the name of a concept may be strict and precise, its aliases may be more meaningful to the user.


One special problem in working with objects that have more than one name is to display them consistently across the entire system, otherwise the same object could appear under different names in different places yielding confusions.


The system supplies one alias selector which is unique in any running process. This value is configured globally from the Master Scope View.

Building dictionaries

An overview of the dictionary design process

No dictionary is ever finished as a user may add concepts to it, and no dictionary is ever empty since the developer ships the system with at least one demo dictionary.

The following is a brief description of the steps involved in extending a legal concept dictionary:


  1. Start with a base dictionary by creating one new concept. This will be the root of the branch about to be developed.
  2. Edit the information using the Concept Editor panel. One may paste the entire raw text of a law into the editor as description for the current concept.
  3. Use the compiler of Gaius 5 to break down the legal text into its elementary pieces based on a configurable grammar of headings. These headings are usually: "Partea", "Cartea", "Titlul", "Capitolul", "Sectiunea", and "Articolul". The result is a hierarchy of concepts with names and descriptions taken from the source text. This hierarchy of concepts is not yet a dictionary, and we call it a Scope.
  4. Run the automated cross-reference procedure of Gaius 5, to turn the hierarchy into a cross-reference. This process does deep comparisons of concept names and synonyms against the description fields of the other remaining concepts within the field. The result is the creation of links between concepts and cables grouping such links into structured ones for larger concepts.
  5. Establishing a good cross-reference is both an art and a science, and the quality of the database will be determined by the ability of the creator to identify synonyms of quality that would adequately reduce the documentation fields of other concepts. The process enters a refining loop where the dictionary designer associates synonyms to concepts and re-runs the automated cross-reference creator of Gaius.
  6. Manually created cross-references are also permitted and encouraged. The process of manually creating such links is that of commenting or wrapping doctrine around a legal text.
  7. At this point the concept hierarchy is a well cross-referenced component that may be used along with other such components to form a larger structure.
  8. Once such components are created, they can be exported to other users or systems. Intra-cross-referenced dictionary concepts may also be imported into the Gaius system. A number of such components may be cross-referenced externally using the same mechanisms described above to form larger dictionaries.


Using the legal text compiler

Example of a legal text, extracted from the Romanian Code of Criminal Law:




Titlul III


CAP. 1


ART. 52

Pedeapsa si scopul ei

Pedeapsa este o masura de constrangere si un mijloc de reeducare a condamnatului.

CAP. 2


ART. 53

Felurile pedepselor

Pedepsele sunt principale, complimentare si accesorii.


Sample header recognition grammar used by the compiler:



\r\nCARTEA \a

\r\nTitlul \a

\r\nCAP. \a

\r\nSectiunea \a

\r\nART. \a


The result of the compilation is a concept hierarchy of Parts, Books, Titles, Chapters, Sections and finally articles of law.


Viewing/browsing a legal dictionary as a schematic

The Schematic Editor is a complex subsystem of the ANNA K5 family of products that displays diagrams of concepts and their links. In the picture below is the result of an automated cross-reference process run over the entire Criminal Law. The network of inter-concept cables were automatically constructed by the XRef button of the Concept Browser's toolbar.


These links were established by comparing the alias names of any article, chapter, title, etc, against the body of description of any other article. The diagram shows two cables of relations between the General Part of the Code and its special part. Further navigation is possible by selecting either concepts or links, to load them into the Concept Browser for editing.

In the following diagram the blue circle is a Title V from the Special Part of the Romanian Penal Code: "Infractiuni Contra Autoritatilor". The red wire is a cross-reference between "Sustragerea de sub sechestru" (pink diamond" and "Pedepsele principlae" (pink square).

The green cable contains all the cross-reference relationships from "Infractioni contra autoritatilor" and "Pedepsele"

 Hit CounterCreated on 05/27/2009 06:38:53 AM, modified on 05/27/2009 06:38:53 AM


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