Gaius Correlator EN
Table of Contents
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Table of Figures
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This document contains sensitive material, which is and remains the intellectual property of Proxima Centauri Romania S.R.L. Duplication or publication of any part of this material without the express prior consent of Proxima is prohibited under the international copyright laws.
ANNA K5 is a trademark of Proxima Centauri Pty Ltd.
GAIUS 5 is a trademark of Proxima Centauri Romania S.R.L.
The methods and the designs described in this document are pending patents in the US, Australia, and Romania.
The reader will proceed with this document under an implicit non-disclosure agreement with Proxima Centauri.
Gaius is essentially a browser and editor of dictionaries of generic concepts.
A concept is a generic term. Concepts can relate to one another to establish Dictionaries. A dictionary of terms or concepts needs a way to navigate. Once a concept is found it can be edited. The role of the Gaius Concept Editor is to provide navigation and editing functionality for concept dictionaries.
Gaius also provides a set of high-level tools to create dictionaries from text sources, to generate reports, and to compare dictionaries to create cross-references.
Gaius is best at designing and maintaining legal archives, as dictionaries of terms, laws, doctrine articles, and general comments.
We shall next focus on the applications of Gaius in the legal world.
Core system developers
Dictionary developers: Law
firms End users in the field.
Core system developers
End users in the field.
As a design tool, Gaius is intended for use in a firm that provides legal advice to the public. Such a firm may choose to construct its own database of legislation, sell it to its private or corporate clients, and then inform them periodically of updates. In this scenario, Gaius is a database editor, archive manager, and update manager.
As a tool in the hands of the end-user, Gaius is a dictionary browser for a database that is only readable. As such, Gaius is the simplest, most integrated, and convenient way of finding legal text in pre-configured database of normative acts. It can also produce reports from user selections.
Gaius is also an evolving environment, in the hands of core programmers. They constantly develop program modules, such as dedicated viewer/editors, report generators, or sophisticated cross-referencing tools based on Artificial Intelligence.
Three types of system users are thus present in Gaius's world.:
Like most applications of ANNA K5 operating system, Gaius is launched from a tray icon. A popup menu such as the one below lists the application's major components.
A component of Anna K5 is an independent program module, which complies to a certain development standard that allows interaction with other such modules. Gaius is constructed to interface with other programs such as the Scope Browser, the Information Viewer, and the Schematic Editor.
The tray popup menu presents all the modules registered in a given system installation on a particular computer.
The Concept Browser starts with an initial concept as set by the Editor's environment. In the illustration below the initial topic is "Inchisoarea"/"Jail", which is a dictionary term belonging to a hierarchy of concepts from the Romanian Code of Criminal Law. Navigation is possible thereafter by double clicking on the relative concepts in the Base Concepts Tree View and in the Derived Concepts Tree View, which are the two arborescences on the left and right of the Concept Editor form.
Any concept such as "Inchisoarea"/"Jail" is said to have inputs and outputs. The inputs of a concept are the set of links to other base concepts used in "explaining" the current concept. The outputs of a concept are the set of links to other concepts derived from the current concept.
The display method of Gaius's Concept Editor has the following rationale:
legaturi la notiunile de baza Bara de
instrumente Browser de
legaturi la notiunile derivate Editorul
notiunii de baza selectate Editorul
notiunii curente incarcate Editorul
notiunii derivate selectate Bara de stare Editorul de
nume si sinonime Sublinierea
interdependentelor de notiuni
Browser de legaturi la notiunile de baza
Bara de instrumente
Browser de legaturi la notiunile derivate
Editorul notiunii de baza selectate
Editorul notiunii curente incarcate
Editorul notiunii derivate selectate
Bara de stare
Editorul de nume si sinonime
This screen organization allows for a maximum fill of the visual area with content pertaining to the current concept.
1. Keep: prevents the Concept View from refocusing.
2. Okay: applies the changes made into the base, current and derived concept editors.
3. Depth level: sets the detail level for the current concept information.
4. Drop mode: configures the effect of drag and drop operations over the Name editor.
5. New: creates another concept, peer with the last one.
6. Delete: deletes the current concept and loads the next one if available. Otherwise it loads the parent.
7. Flags: on/off values to configure various aspects of the Concept Browser.
8. Font: sets the font of the current selection. Information fields with fonts are stored as documents. Fonts are lost upon the next compilation.
9. Search: searches a string within the given text.
10. Generate: generates the information document based on the level of depth specified.
11. Grammar: edits the grammar of headings used by the compiler and text generator
12. Compile: compiles the text using the specified grammar, or, if the Headings flag is checked, using numbered leading labels up to the depth specified by the toolbar.
13. Cross-reference: automatically builds the information cross-reference by analyzing the sub-concepts of the currently selected concept. This process matches node names and their aliases into the information text of any other node. If matches are found, exactly one relation is created between the two nodes. Use a right-mouse-click to delete all such relations in the scope.
14. Insert object: embed multimedia documents into the concept description.
The base and derived concept browser show the links that the current concept has with other concepts of the dictionary.
With a black icon we represent a link that the current concept has to another branch of the dictionary. Such a link is said to be "structured" because it contains all the other links that the current concept ort its sub-concepts has to the related branch. Elementary links with red icons cannot be expanded further.
Cables of cross-references and hierarchies of concepts are Gaius's fundamental mechanisms for managing dictionaries of a great level of complexity, such as is the case with a legal archive.
The user browses the base or the derived concept trees finding other documents that relate to the current concept. A preview of that link is shown in the Base or Derived Concept Editors. The entire Concept Browser looks much like a newspaper page, rather than a flat textbook page, which helps the user in holding more and non duplicate information on the screen.
Selecting a link in the base or derived concept browsers will highlight the occurrence of that concept within the main concept panel. The current concept name and its synonyms are also used to highlight the occurrence of the current concept in the side articles. The result is a set of visual indications that the user has as to why the cross-references exist and what they mean. In the screen shot above, the center concept was "Titlul III | Pedepsele"/"Punisments" of the Romanian Penal Code. The base concept of "Suspendarea conditionata a pedepsei" or "Parole" is selected in the tree and in the base concept editor below it. Likewise in the derived concept list we selected the article referring to "aplicarea legii penale mai favorabile". The name of the central concept were highlighted in the base/derived concept editors in blue and red respectively, and the selected base and derived concept names were highlighted in the central concept editor for ease of identification.
The status bar shows current status information relating to the editing of the current concept.
It has the following layout:
1. The number of lines in the information text
2. The current (column:row) position of the cursor into the text
3. The caracter offset from the beginning of the information text
4. Information relations created during a cross-reference process
5. The effort of comparing concepts during a cross-reference process
6. Controls showing a percent estimate to the completion of compilation, generation or cross-reference processes.
Scope Browser Concept Browser Info View
The navigation capabilities of a certain dictionary are intrinsic to the design of that dictionary. Consequently, there would be certain base concepts, which are considered terminals or axioms of that dictionary. Such concepts would not have any inputs. These are also the most general terms used throughout that dictionary to form more specific ones. Conversely, certain concepts in the dictionary may be final, in that no other concept is based on them. The set of symbols of these two kinds, one kind without inputs, and another without outputs, are the limits of that particular dictionary.
Cross referential closure within a given dictionary could lead to the formation of distinct, unrelated sets of words. Such clusters are the sub-languages of a dictionary. Navigating the words of a sub-language could be a closed circle, depending on the design of the particular concept dictionary. If such distinct language pools are present in a dictionary, then another tool, which is foreign to the scope of this Concept Editor is required to allow the user to do the jump.
Just such a tool is the Master Scope View of the ANNA K5 integration frame. The Master Scope View is briefly described below.
A Gaius 5 concept dictionary is a highly structured multi-dimensional entity. To navigate it one needs to descend down the scope axis of the dictionary using a Master Browser. The result is the loading of a concept into the Concept Browser.
The Master Browser provides the necessary features to work on dictionary branches.
All objects in the ANNA K5 operating system have a name. An object is said to have aliases when its name is made from more than one simple string compounded using the | (pipe) character. The name of an object may be edited either in a scope tree or in the name editor of the concept viewer.
Aliases work just like simple names to identify the object in any search or display algorithm.
One may use aliases in a database of people for example, to associate a nickname with the proper name of each person. Looking-up a person by his/her nickname is just like searching by their proper name.
In a legal database, aliases or synonyms are are used to associate node names such as Legea, Partea, Titlul, Sectiunea, Capitolul, Articolul meaningful namnes such as: Codul Penal, Partea Generala, Pedepsele, Pedepsele Principale, and Regimul general al executarii pedepselor.
While the name of a concept may be strict and precise, its aliases may be more meaningful to the user.
One special problem in working with objects that have more than one name is to display them consistently across the entire system, otherwise the same object could appear under different names in different places yielding confusions.
The system supplies one alias selector which is unique in any running process. This value is configured globally from the Master Scope View.
No dictionary is ever finished as a user may add concepts to it, and no dictionary is ever empty since the developer ships the system with at least one demo dictionary.
The following is a brief description of the steps involved in extending a legal concept dictionary:
Example of a legal text, extracted from the Romanian Code of Criminal Law:
Pedeapsa si scopul ei
Pedeapsa este o masura de constrangere si un mijloc de reeducare a condamnatului.
CATEGORIILE SI LIMITELE GENERALE ALE PEDEPSELOR
Pedepsele sunt principale, complimentare si accesorii.
Sample header recognition grammar used by the compiler:
The result of the compilation is a concept hierarchy of Parts, Books, Titles, Chapters, Sections and finally articles of law.
The Schematic Editor is a complex subsystem of the ANNA K5 family of products that displays diagrams of concepts and their links. In the picture below is the result of an automated cross-reference process run over the entire Criminal Law. The network of inter-concept cables were automatically constructed by the XRef button of the Concept Browser's toolbar.
These links were established by comparing the alias names of any article, chapter, title, etc, against the body of description of any other article. The diagram shows two cables of relations between the General Part of the Code and its special part. Further navigation is possible by selecting either concepts or links, to load them into the Concept Browser for editing.
In the following diagram the blue circle is a Title V from the Special Part of the Romanian Penal Code: "Infractiuni Contra Autoritatilor". The red wire is a cross-reference between "Sustragerea de sub sechestru" (pink diamond" and "Pedepsele principlae" (pink square).
The green cable contains all the cross-reference relationships from "Infractioni contra autoritatilor" and "Pedepsele"
Created on 05/27/2009 06:38:53 AM, modified on 05/27/2009 06:38:53 AM
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